Author Topic: Turpentine as a blending agent  (Read 13938 times)

Jhanananda

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Turpentine as a blending agent
« on: January 04, 2012, 08:48:59 PM »
Blending Turpentine with vegetable oil to make diesel fuel
Blending Turpentine with vegetable oil to make diesel fuel I
Video: Making vegetable oil blend diesel fuel (VOBDF) by blending Turpentine with waste vegetable oil (WVO) offers a purely bio-source for diesel fuel that is more green than biodiesel. All we need is the forest product industry to extract the volatiles from their waste products to bring down the per-gallon price of turpentine to be competitive with gasoline prices. Then our highways could smell like forests.
http://youtu.be/GnUsbeVsSew

Blending Turpentine with vegetable oil to make diesel fuel II
Video: Driving 150 miles on a blend of 20% Pure Gum Turpentine with 80% waste vegetable oil (WVO) offers a purely bio-source for diesel fuel that is more green than biodiesel. All we need is the forest product industry to extract the volatiles from their waste products to bring down the per-gallon price of turpentine to be competitive with gasoline prices. Then our highways and cities would smell like forests.
http://youtu.be/2TyTtfRfPV4
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)

Jhanananda

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Re: Turpentine as a blending agent
« Reply #1 on: January 04, 2012, 08:51:27 PM »
Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine–diesel dual fuel engine
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544206002167

R. Karthikeyana, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, N.V. Mahalakshmib
Purchase
a   Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
b   I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Received 26 December 2005; Available online 20 September 2006.
Abstract

This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40–45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant Nox is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification.

Keywords: Turpentine; Dual fuel; Alternate fuel; Emission analysis; Combustion analysis
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)

Jhanananda

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Re: Turpentine as a blending agent
« Reply #2 on: January 04, 2012, 08:58:47 PM »
Experimental Investigation on the Engine Performance and Emission Behaviour of Turpentine

Experimental Investigation on the Engine Performance and Emission Behaviour of Turpentine – Diesel Dual Fuel Operated Modified DI Diesel Engine

R. Karthikeyan*
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Adhiparasakthi Engineering College
Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu, India
N. Nallusamy
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering
Sriperumepudur, Tamil Nadu, India
N. Alagumoorthi
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry India
V. Ilangovan
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Karpagavinayagar College of Engineering and Technology
Maduranthagam, Tamil Nadu, India
*corresponding author

ABSTRACT
The dual fuel technique offers the advantage of easy conversion of the diesel
engine to work on the dual fuel mode with little engine modifications. In this
mode, the primary fuel (turpentine) is inducted along with inlet air stream and
the pilot fuel (diesel) is injected through the regular injection system. The primary
fuel (turpentine) shared the maximum energy in the power production but the
pilot fuel shared only a least part and act as an ignition source. The engine with
this facility has been operated under various load conditions and at various
turpentine energy shares. The energy share that provides better performance
has been identified and compared with diesel fuel operation. From the obtained
results it was proved that this engine offered higher BTE at full load and smoke
free operation at all loads. The CO and HC emissions were higher and operated
with very low NOx emission at all loads. The results also proved that the dual
fuel operation successfully replaced 75% of diesel usage with turpentine fuel.

Keywords: Turpentine, dual fuel engine, energy share, brake thermal efficiency,
CO emission, HC emission, NOx Emission and Combustion

References
[1] Devan, P.K. and Mahalakshmi, N.V. (2010). ‘Combustion, Emission and
Performance Characteristics of Diesel engine Fueled with Eucalyptus oil
with an Ignition Enhancer’, International Journal of Green Energy, Energy
and Environment, 1(1), 40-49.
[2] Robert J. Last, Micheal Kruger and Manfred Durnholz (1995). ‘Emissions
and Performance Characteristics of A 4-Stroke, Direct Injected Diesel
Engine Fueled with Blends of Biodiesel and Low Sulfer Diesel Fuel’,
SAE Trans., 950054, 1-13.
[3] Karthikeyan, R. and Mahalakshmi, N.V. (2005). ‘Performance and
emission characteristics of four stroke DI diesel engine fueled with
turpentine diesel blends’, Proceedings of the ICEF2005 ASME Internal
Combustion Engine Division 2005 Fall Technical Conference, Sep 11-14,
2005, Ottawa, Canada.
[4] Karthikeyan, R. and Mahalakshmi, N.V. (2007). ‘Performance and
emission characteristics of a turpentine – diesel dual fuel engine’, Energy
the International Journal, 32(7), 1202-1209.
[5] SenthilKumar, M., Ramesh A. and Nagalingam B. (2001)(a). ‘Complete
Vegetable Oil Fueled Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine’, SAE
Trans., 2001-26-0067, pp 441-448.
[6] SenthilKumar, M., Ramesh, A. and Nagalingam, B. (2001)(b).
‘Experimental Investigations on a Jatropa Oil Methanol Duel Fuel Engine’,
SAE Trans., 2001-01-0153.
http://www.fkm.uitm.edu.my/jmeche/index.php/journal/volume-8/volume-8-no-1/90-experimental-investigation-on-the-engine-performance-and-emission-behaviour-of-turpentine--
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)

Jhanananda

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Re: Turpentine as a blending agent
« Reply #3 on: January 06, 2012, 08:07:10 PM »
Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission Tests of Sulfate Turpentine and No:2 Diesel Fuel Blend
Authors: Cafer Kaplan a; M. Hakki Alma b; Ahmet Tutuscedil b; Merve Çetinkaya c; Filiz Karaosmanogbrevelu c
Affiliations: a Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Uludagbreve University, Görükle-Bursa, Turkey
b Department of Forest Industry Engineering, Kahramanmarascedil, Sütçü Idotmam University, Kahramanmarascedil, Turkey
c Department of Chemical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak-Istanbul, Turkey
DOI: 10.1081/LFT-200038176
Published in: journal Petroleum Science and Technology, Volume 23, Issue 11 & 12 November 2005 , pages 1333 - 1339

Abstract
Environmentally friendly, biobased fuel additives become more important when environmental concerns all around the world are considered. In this study, sulfate turpentine is investigated as a candidate diesel fuel additive. Engine performance tests were conducted on a 53 kW, 4000 rpm Peugeot XD 3P 157 type diesel engine for 3:97 turpentine and No:2 diesel fuel blend and similar results to No:2 diesel fuel were obtained. Significant reduction in exhaust emissions were observed as a result of using turpentine and No:2 diesel fuel blend.
Keywords: diesel fuel; turpentine; sulfate turpentine; fuel additive; engine performance test; exhaust emissions

Turpentine is characterized by both its starting material and production process. All turpentines are produced from Pinus spp. trees. Turpentine oil is derived from the oleoresin (balsam) collected from the tree. Distillation of this material produces turpentine oil and the solid rosin. Steam-distilled (wood) turpentine is derived from finely chopped wood chips and processed by either steam distillation or solvent extraction. Sulfate and sulfite turpentines are by products of the kraft and sulfite pulping processes, respectively. Destructively distilled wood turpentine is made by dry distillation of pinewood (primarily pine stumps), followed by purification.

Turpentine is a mixture of constituents. The type and amount of specific constituents is dependent on the type of pine tree, the geographical location of the trees, and the season of tree harvest. Turpentine produced in the United States is made up primarily of α-pinene (75 to 85%) with varying amounts of β-pinene (up to 3%), camphene (4 to 15%), limonene (dipentene, 5 to 15%), 3-carene, and terpinolene (percentages not provided).
The production of turpentine oil in the United States peaked in the 1950s. Georgia is the only remaining state that continues to collect pine balsam for the production of turpentine oil. Steamdistilled wood turpentine was produced in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time most of the turpentine produced in the United States is the by-product of the kraft pulping process, sulfate turpentine. In 1999, total domestic production of turpentine was 20.7 million gallons. The production of destructively distilled wood turpentine is no longer of commercial importance. No additional information was available for sulfite turpentine. According to the U.S. EPA (2000),
aggregate production of turpentine oil ranged from between 100 and 500 million pound in the United States for the 1998 reporting cycle.

Turpentine was formerly the most widely used paint and varnish thinner and is still used in some paints and coatings. The use of less expensive petroleum-based products has replaced the use of turpentine in paints. When turpentine is used today, it is most likely in specialty applications such as spray painting, pottery and ceramic coatings, artist’s paints, and naval paints. Turpentine is sometimes present in shoe and furniture polishes, and is used as a metal cleaner. Currently, the major use of turpentine is as a raw material for the chemical industry. Terpenes and other compounds extracted from turpentine can be used for such products as tires, plastics, adhesives, flavors and fragrances, cosmetics, paints, and pharmaceuticals. The value of turpentine represents about 25% of the value of all aroma chemicals produced for both sale and for internal use each year. Past uses for turpentine include printing processes, hairdressing formulations, and as medicinals.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1081/LFT-200038176#preview
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)

Jhanananda

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Re: Turpentine as a blending agent
« Reply #4 on: January 24, 2012, 06:40:57 AM »
Why is this sustainable biodiesel illegal in the UK?
http://www.link2portal.com/why-sustainable-biodiesel-illegal-uk
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)

Jhanananda

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Re: Turpentine as a blending agent
« Reply #5 on: January 31, 2012, 07:53:21 PM »
Swedish forests spawn new 'green' diesel
http://www.thelocal.se/33528/20110502/
I have run various blends of waste oils and unleaded gasoline since Feb, 2007 in a 1983 Chevy G-20 van with a 6.2L diesel V-8 engine, with a Stanadyne Rotary DB2 IP. I have started the engine with no difficulty on an 80/20 (WVO/gas) blend down to 3F (-16c).  I now run 60/20/20 (WVO/diesel/gas)